Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a species in the legume or “bean” family. The peanut was probably first domesticated and cultivated in the valleys of Paraguay. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm (1.0 to 1.6 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet), each leaflet 1 to 7 cm (? to 2 inch) long and 1 to 3 cm (? to 1 inch) broad.
Peanuts are known by many other local names such as earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts and pig nuts. Despite its name and appearance, the peanut is not a nut, but rather a legume.
India is the second largest producer of groundnuts in the world. Indian groundnuts are available in different varieties: Bold or Runner, Java or Spanish and Red Natal. The main Groundnut varieties produced in India are Kadiri-2, Kadiri-3, BG-1, BG-2, Kuber , GAUG-1, GAUG-10, PG-1 , T-28, T-64, Chandra, Chitra, Kaushal, Parkash, Amber etc.
They have a rich nutty flavour, sweet taste, crunchy texture and over and above a relatively longer shelf life. Soil conditions in some producing regions are ideally suited for dry, clean and spotless Groundnuts in Shell.
Groundnut is the major oil seed crop in India and it plays a major role in bridging the vegetable oil deficit in the country. Groundnuts in India are available throughout the year due to a two-crop cycle harvested in March and October. Ground Nuts are important protein crops in India grown mostly under rain-fed conditions.
The awareness and concern for quality amongst the Indian groundnut shellers and processors are growing steadily. Multiple sorting and grading are fast becoming a norm. Indian manufacturer have the capability to prepare and supply edible peanuts conforming to highest standards.
Processed Peanuts: Apart from raw edible peanuts, India is also in a position to supply Blanched Peanuts, Roasted Salted Peanuts and Dry Roasted Peanuts and a variety of peanut based products.
Major Growing States:
Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra ,Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Uttar Pradesh
India Facts and Figures :
The country has exported 7,26,535.91 MT of groundnuts to the world for the worth of Rs. 5,456.72 crores/ 813.45 USD Millions during the year 2016-17.
Major Export Destinations (2016-17) : Indonesia, Vietnam Social Republic, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.